I have to agree the Constitution of 1787 ended then. Succession was not Illegal then, and should not be illegal now. With that said, the legality is a red herring. Based on the Declaration of Independence, and the Southern interpretation of the Constitution, and the views of loyalty, they would have seceded anyway. And whether or no, it was legal or not, as you state Lincoln and Company used the Northern and very broad interpretation of unrelated parts of the Constitution, for a pretense of legality, and they project that on the South and the legality, and to the Northern view, it was a false pretense. Revisionism and erasure was at work, even back in 1865. Even before the Constitution was ratified, Slavery and the Secession question, were glossed over and left deliberately vague, to avoid, outright confrontation. Time and again, in absolutely unrelated issues, Northern politicians would bring up the slavery issue, and would tie it to what ever issue. Then you had fire breathers like William Lloyd Garrison stirring up trouble, by turning the North away from a spirit of compromise, and insulting the South so, that they became as adamant in protecting the south, and regionalism and politics were strangling the country so horribly, something had to give. Lincoln and the North felt the pressure from the rest of the world that the American Experiment, and the Revolution was a failure, and many were gloating in it. Besides the economic, and population disparities between the North and South, was the issue of Slavery. The achillea's Heel of the South. The issue of Slavery was so flaunted it kept both France and England, who both otherwise would have loved to have seen the Smug and hotheaded New Englander's to fail. Political Power and Control, Sectionalism, Money/economics, as with all wars, was the true cause. However a true study of the Civil War, must include the importance and impact of slavery, before, during, and after the war, and continuing to the present. It did not close the war, but shrewd politicians learned how to attach it to every available issue to cloud the issue. Divide and Conquer. I can understand where and why historians, both the liberal educated, and the opinions and thoughts of Fellow Americans North of the Mason Dixon line, make the horrible mistake of thinking slavery was the cause. In most cases it is deliberate continuation of the politics of the war, being projected into today's view of the history. History should never change. The Historical perspective is these are the facts, this is what they thought, this is what the did, these are the results. We have NO RIGHT to pass judgement on either side, and historians need to leave themselves and their political views out of it. I was taught to use the scientific approach to history, and to be careful to try and remove the sociopolitical filters, and my own personal thoughts and feelings out of it, and to apply the sociopolitical perspective of the day in analyzing the who, when what where and whys of what happened. Politics should be kept out of it. that is what caused the war in the first place. My view is that both sides were wrong then, and they are most certainly wrong now! If I were to give in to my personal views, and faced with what happened then. I would have been a fire eating southern secessionists, even though, I abhor the thought of slavery. And my personal view today, I would be a fire breathing Southern Patriot wanting to storm the Capitol. I know that is wrong, and we need to avoid the same mistakes that they made in 1861, now in 2021. I have nothing to gain, in supporting any side, other than in todays, political climate, anything remotely pro-southern brings down accusations of racism and disloyalty. And from my Southern and conservative Brethren, if I Support the importance, of slavery, and anything remotely appearing to be pro-Union and espousal of the Northern LIBTARD perspective. In the middle is the starting point of exploring the truth, to a point both sides were right, and to a huge point, both sides were terribly wrong. We can fix or change the past, but we should learn from their mistakes and correct the future, or we shall be forced to repeat it. And it is sure looking the same way now. We are getting to the point, that something has got to give. I for one, do not want to have to live through the American Civil war Version 2.0. From my viewpoint, Version 1.0 truly was a War of Northern Aggression, and Version 2.0 will in my mind be the War of American LIBTARD Stupidity and Aggression. that is why political viewpoints are asked to be kept off posting sites, to prevent the firestorm. In this I am stating my opinion based on the historical facts, and expressing my personal view as an example, not saying my view is the right one, not saying another view is correct. I use it as an example as to why it is important to try and keep political views to a minimum in the analyzing of history. However, expression of personal opinions should and must be allowed, when presented in a respectful way that adds to the discussion, without people taking offense. Doyle. I really appreciate you and your approach, and you are most respectful and it really adds to discussion and we all really learn I want to commend you and the other contributors, because we try and do that. Please feel to correct me, if and when I violate my own code! I am on a roll because of what I have seen in other civil war sites, the polarizzation and passions being driven and the war is being fought all over again with a very pronounced anti confederate, anti capitalists. anti conservative vibe. Lost Causers, New wave Confederates VS. Liberal, Socialists duking it out, and trying to equate, Systemic racial bias as a continuation of slavery. That odes not belong here and we need to keep it off here.